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Physiological Methods


Usually researchers use different physiological methods or parameters to measure emotions. Among others there are:

  • electromyogram (EMG)
  • electrodermal activity / skin conductance (EDA/SC)
  • electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • photoplethysmogram (PPG)
  • functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
  • facial expression recognition systems
  • eye-tracking systems
  • pneumography

All these methods demand an careful description of their advantages and limitations, which is beyond the scope of these pages. We just list them here to point the reader‘s attention to this approach to measure emotional episodes. Further information can be found in any introductory book on psychophysiology or in Schleicher (2008).

Related Research Projects

Currently there is a research project at the Quality & Usability Lab of Deutsche Telekom Laboratories and Technical University Berlin, we would like to refer to for more information:

Bernstein Center for Neurotechnology – Berlin (BCNT – B):

Zusatzinformationen / Extras


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