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Quality and Usability LabAssessment and Prediction of the QoE of Mobile Gaming

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Subjective assessment and instrumental prediction of mobile online gaming on the basis of perceptual dimensions


The assessment of the perceived quality of the user (Quality of Experience) of pure audio and video material differs in many ways from the quality of computer games. The later possess a variety of factors due to their interactive nature. Not only factors of complex and innovative game systems have an impact on the QoE, but also the players themselves. A quality judgment, that results by comparing the expected and perceived composition of an entity, depends highly on the preferences, expectations and abilities of the player.

In this still young area of research standard methods for determining the QoE are not directly applicable. This is apparent since in a task oriented human-computer interaction the goal should be achieved with minimal effort. However in a game  the player exerts an effort in order to influence the outcome and thereby feels emotionally attached. Thus new concepts such as immersion and flow, a state of happiness while being in an equilibrium between competence and challenge, appear.

An analysis of the gaming market shows, that the proportion of mobile games has risen sharply in recent years. Mobile games are special in a sense that mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets were originally not designed for games and are therefore not optimally adapted to them. This also applies to the new concept of cloud gaming, where the entire game is executed on a server and only the video and audio material is transferred to the end user.


Aim of the project

The aim of this research project is to develop methods to assess the QoE of mobile games. In addition, based on a database containing subjective quality judgments, a model similar to the well known E-model should be constructed to predict the QoE. The following concrete steps are planned for this purpose:

  • Set up and modification of a testbed for conducting experiments including a cloud gaming system for mobile games
  • Development of a classification of games to choose representative games and identify system and user factors
  • Building a questionnaire covering a large space of relevant quality dimensions
  • Identification of quality-relevant perceptual dimensions and analysis of their impact on the overall quality
  • Analyzing the performance of current objective metrics which were proposed for different contents and services in mobile gaming
  • Building a QoE model based on game, system and network characteristics as well as user and context factors
Time Frame: 
01/2016 - 06/2019
T-labs Team Members:
Steven Schmidt
Funding by:
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
Project Number:
MO 1038/21-1

List of Publications

Influence of Virtual Environments and Conversations on User Engagement During Multiplayer Exergames
Citation key Kojic2018
Author Kojic, Tanja and Voigt-Antons, Jan-Niklas and Schmidt, Steven and Tetzlaff, Lukas and Kortowski, Bruno and Sirotina, Uliana and Möller, Sebastian
Title of Book 2018 Tenth International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX)
Pages 1–3
Year 2018
ISSN 2472-7814
DOI 10.1109/QoMEX.2018.8463370
Location Cagliari, Italy
Address Piscataway, NJ, USA
Month may
Note Electronic
Publisher IEEE
Series QoMEX
How Published Full
Abstract Virtual Reality (VR) multiplayer games are currently developed more frequently, while in parallel VR is becoming more accessible to the broader public. Also exergames, which refer to computer games combined with a physical activity, are getting widely available, driven by developments in sensor technologies. In this paper, we present results of a multiplayer exergame experiment where two players race against each other four times on two rowing ergometers. Experimental conditions were type of environment (with VR vs. without VR) and the possibility of conversation with the opponent (conversation enabled vs. conversation disabled). To measure subjective experience, participants rated perceived flow, sense of presence and social presence on standardized questionnaires. Results show that the type of environment has a significant influence on the perceived presence, as participants rated the presence higher in VR. The possibility of conversation resulted in a perception of a significantly higher social presence. This illustrates that the usage of virtual environments as well as the possibility of conversations between users are highly valuable to increase the Quality of Experience during exergames. In our future research, we plan to further investigate means to improve the user experience by applying gamification, different representations of opponents, and to assess the impact of network impairments during multiplayer scenarios.
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