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Quality and Usability LabAssessment and Prediction of the QoE of Mobile Gaming

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Subjective assessment and instrumental prediction of mobile online gaming on the basis of perceptual dimensions


The assessment of the perceived quality of the user (Quality of Experience) of pure audio and video material differs in many ways from the quality of computer games. The later possess a variety of factors due to their interactive nature. Not only factors of complex and innovative game systems have an impact on the QoE, but also the players themselves. A quality judgment, that results by comparing the expected and perceived composition of an entity, depends highly on the preferences, expectations and abilities of the player.

In this still young area of research standard methods for determining the QoE are not directly applicable. This is apparent since in a task oriented human-computer interaction the goal should be achieved with minimal effort. However in a game  the player exerts an effort in order to influence the outcome and thereby feels emotionally attached. Thus new concepts such as immersion and flow, a state of happiness while being in an equilibrium between competence and challenge, appear.

An analysis of the gaming market shows, that the proportion of mobile games has risen sharply in recent years. Mobile games are special in a sense that mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets were originally not designed for games and are therefore not optimally adapted to them. This also applies to the new concept of cloud gaming, where the entire game is executed on a server and only the video and audio material is transferred to the end user.


Aim of the project

The aim of this research project is to develop methods to assess the QoE of mobile games. In addition, based on a database containing subjective quality judgments, a model similar to the well known E-model should be constructed to predict the QoE. The following concrete steps are planned for this purpose:

  • Set up and modification of a testbed for conducting experiments including a cloud gaming system for mobile games
  • Development of a classification of games to choose representative games and identify system and user factors
  • Building a questionnaire covering a large space of relevant quality dimensions
  • Identification of quality-relevant perceptual dimensions and analysis of their impact on the overall quality
  • Analyzing the performance of current objective metrics which were proposed for different contents and services in mobile gaming
  • Building a QoE model based on game, system and network characteristics as well as user and context factors
Time Frame: 
01/2016 - 06/2019
T-labs Team Members:
Steven Schmidt
Funding by:
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
Project Number:
MO 1038/21-1

List of Publications

Impact of Virtual Environments on Motivation and Engagement During Exergames
Citation key schmidt2018a
Author Schmidt, Steven and Ehrenbrink, Patrick and Weiss, Benjamin and Voigt-Antons, Jan-Niklas and Kojic, Tanja and Johnston, Andrew and Möller, Sebastian
Title of Book 2018 Tenth International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX)
Pages 1–6
Year 2018
ISSN 2472-7814
DOI 10.1109/QoMEX.2018.8463389
Location Cagliari, Italy
Address Piscataway, NJ, USA
Month may
Note Electronic
Publisher IEEE
Series QoMEX
How Published Full
Abstract Video games and sport are an essential part in the life of millions of people. With recent advances of immersive virtual reality devices such as the HTC Vive, Oculus Rift, or PlayStation VR, the use of virtual environments (VE) for exergames is becoming more and more popular. An exergame combines a physical activity with video game elements by tracking body movements or reactions of user, attempting to engage users in a more enjoyable system. In this paper, we present the results of a subjective experiment carried out with the aim to compare different kinds of virtual environments with each other. A rowing ergometer, connected either to a virtual reality system using a head-mounted display (HMD) or to a CAVE environment, was used as an exergame device. While for rowing experts, fitness and performance improvements are of major interest, we wanted to focus on the motivation and engagement of non-professionals. By means of a series of questionnaires and a follow-up interview, the Quality of Experience of participants using the system was assessed. Measurements include concepts such as flow, presence, video quality and well-being. Results show significant advantages of the HMD as well as of the CAVE compared to a system without a VE for the overall quality, system feedback, and flow. While the CAVE and HMD system mainly differed in their autotelic experience, the HMD was favored by the majority of participants due to a superior feeling of presence.
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