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Subjective assessment and instrumental prediction of mobile online gaming on the basis of perceptual dimensions


The assessment of the perceived quality of the user (Quality of Experience) of pure audio and video material differs in many ways from the quality of computer games. The later possess a variety of factors due to their interactive nature. Not only factors of complex and innovative game systems have an impact on the QoE, but also the players themselves. A quality judgment, that results by comparing the expected and perceived composition of an entity, depends highly on the preferences, expectations and abilities of the player.

In this still young area of research standard methods for determining the QoE are not directly applicable. This is apparent since in a task oriented human-computer interaction the goal should be achieved with minimal effort. However in a game  the player exerts an effort in order to influence the outcome and thereby feels emotionally attached. Thus new concepts such as immersion and flow, a state of happiness while being in an equilibrium between competence and challenge, appear.

An analysis of the gaming market shows, that the proportion of mobile games has risen sharply in recent years. Mobile games are special in a sense that mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets were originally not designed for games and are therefore not optimally adapted to them. This also applies to the new concept of cloud gaming, where the entire game is executed on a server and only the video and audio material is transferred to the end user.


Aim of the project

The aim of this research project is to develop methods to assess the QoE of mobile games. In addition, based on a database containing subjective quality judgments, a model similar to the well known E-model should be constructed to predict the QoE. The following concrete steps are planned for this purpose:

  • Set up and modification of a testbed for conducting experiments including a cloud gaming system for mobile games
  • Development of a classification of games to choose representative games and identify system and user factors
  • Building a questionnaire covering a large space of relevant quality dimensions
  • Identification of quality-relevant perceptual dimensions and analysis of their impact on the overall quality
  • Analyzing the performance of current objective metrics which were proposed for different contents and services in mobile gaming
  • Building a QoE model based on game, system and network characteristics as well as user and context factors
Time Frame: 
01/2016 - 06/2019
T-labs Team Members:
Steven Schmidt
Funding by:
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
Project Number:
MO 1038/21-1

List of Publications

Towards the Impact of Gamers Strategy and User Inputs on the Delay Sensitivity of Cloud Games
Citation key sabet2020a
Author Sabet, Saeed Shafiee and Schmidt, Steven and Zadtootaghaj, Saman and Griwodz, Carsten and Möller, Sebastian
Title of Book 2020 Twelfth International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX)
Pages 1–3
Year 2020
ISBN 978-1-7281-5965-2
DOI 10.1109/QoMEX48832.2020.9123138
Location Athlone, Ireland
Month may
Publisher IEEE
Series QoMEX ’20
How Published Poster
Abstract Cloud Gaming is an emerging service that is considered by many as the future of the gaming industry. This service requires a highly reliable network with low latency and high bandwidth. If these requirements are not satisfied, cloud gaming services cannot create a good Quality of Experience (QoE) for its users. However, gaming QoE can vary significantly among different game scenarios and users. For an optimal resource allocation and quality estimation, it is highly important for cloud providers, game developers, and network planners to consider the influence of the game content and gamers. This paper presents the result of a subjective study that investigated the impact of different player strategies and user inputs on their perceived delay. The results indicated that the user input characteristics vary among the games but stays the same between different users and different strategies. In addition to the users' inputs, the input quality and the overall gaming experience of the users were also investigated, and results did not show any main effect of user strategy on the delay sensitivity of the games.
Link to publication Link to original publication Download Bibtex entry

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