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Subjective assessment and instrumental prediction of mobile online gaming on the basis of perceptual dimensions

Motivation

The assessment of the perceived quality of the user (Quality of Experience) of pure audio and video material differs in many ways from the quality of computer games. The later possess a variety of factors due to their interactive nature. Not only factors of complex and innovative game systems have an impact on the QoE, but also the players themselves. A quality judgment, that results by comparing the expected and perceived composition of an entity, depends highly on the preferences, expectations and abilities of the player.

In this still young area of research standard methods for determining the QoE are not directly applicable. This is apparent since in a task oriented human-computer interaction the goal should be achieved with minimal effort. However in a game  the player exerts an effort in order to influence the outcome and thereby feels emotionally attached. Thus new concepts such as immersion and flow, a state of happiness while being in an equilibrium between competence and challenge, appear.

An analysis of the gaming market shows, that the proportion of mobile games has risen sharply in recent years. Mobile games are special in a sense that mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets were originally not designed for games and are therefore not optimally adapted to them. This also applies to the new concept of cloud gaming, where the entire game is executed on a server and only the video and audio material is transferred to the end user.

 

Aim of the project

The aim of this research project is to develop methods to assess the QoE of mobile games. In addition, based on a database containing subjective quality judgments, a model similar to the well known E-model should be constructed to predict the QoE. The following concrete steps are planned for this purpose:

  • Set up and modification of a testbed for conducting experiments including a cloud gaming system for mobile games
  • Development of a classification of games to choose representative games and identify system and user factors
  • Building a questionnaire covering a large space of relevant quality dimensions
  • Identification of quality-relevant perceptual dimensions and analysis of their impact on the overall quality
  • Analyzing the performance of current objective metrics which were proposed for different contents and services in mobile gaming
  • Building a QoE model based on game, system and network characteristics as well as user and context factors
Time Frame: 
01/2016 - 06/2019
T-labs Team Members:
Steven Schmidt
Funding by:
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
Project Number:
MO 1038/21-1

List of Publications

A Latency Compensation Technique Based on Game Characteristics to Mitigate the Influence of Delay on Cloud Gaming Quality of Experience
Citation key sabet2020c
Author Sabet, Saeed Shafiee and Schmidt, Steven and Zadtootaghaj, Saman and Naderi, Babak and Griwodz, Carsten and Möller, Sebastian
Title of Book Proceedings of the 11th ACM Multimedia Systems Conference
Pages 15–25
Year 2020
ISBN 9781450368452
DOI 10.1145/3339825.3391855
Location Istanbul, Turkey
Address New York, NY, USA
Month jun
Publisher Association for Computing Machinery
Series MMSys ’20
How Published Fullpaper
Abstract Cloud Gaming (CG) is an immersive multimedia service that promises many benefits. In CG, the games are rendered in a cloud server, and the resulted scenes are streamed as a video sequence to the client. Using CG users are not forced to update their gaming hardware frequently, and available games can be played on any operating system or suitable device. However, cloud gaming requires a reliable and low-latency network, which makes it a very challenging service. Transmission latency strongly affects the playability of a cloud game and consequently reduces the users' Quality of Experience (QoE). In this paper, we propose a latency compensation technique using game adaptation that mitigates the influence of delay on QoE. This technique uses five game characteristics for the adaptation. These characteristics, in addition to an Aim-assistance technique, were implemented in four games for evaluation. A subjective study using 194 participants was conducted using a crowdsourcing approach. The results showed that the majority of the proposed adaptation techniques lead to significant improvements in the cloud gaming QoE.
Link to publication Link to original publication Download Bibtex entry

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