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Quality and Usability LabAssessment and Prediction of the QoE of Mobile Gaming

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Subjective assessment and instrumental prediction of mobile online gaming on the basis of perceptual dimensions

Motivation

The assessment of the perceived quality of the user (Quality of Experience) of pure audio and video material differs in many ways from the quality of computer games. The later possess a variety of factors due to their interactive nature. Not only factors of complex and innovative game systems have an impact on the QoE, but also the players themselves. A quality judgment, that results by comparing the expected and perceived composition of an entity, depends highly on the preferences, expectations and abilities of the player.

In this still young area of research standard methods for determining the QoE are not directly applicable. This is apparent since in a task oriented human-computer interaction the goal should be achieved with minimal effort. However in a game  the player exerts an effort in order to influence the outcome and thereby feels emotionally attached. Thus new concepts such as immersion and flow, a state of happiness while being in an equilibrium between competence and challenge, appear.

An analysis of the gaming market shows, that the proportion of mobile games has risen sharply in recent years. Mobile games are special in a sense that mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets were originally not designed for games and are therefore not optimally adapted to them. This also applies to the new concept of cloud gaming, where the entire game is executed on a server and only the video and audio material is transferred to the end user.

 

Aim of the project

The aim of this research project is to develop methods to assess the QoE of mobile games. In addition, based on a database containing subjective quality judgments, a model similar to the well known E-model should be constructed to predict the QoE. The following concrete steps are planned for this purpose:

  • Set up and modification of a testbed for conducting experiments including a cloud gaming system for mobile games
  • Development of a classification of games to choose representative games and identify system and user factors
  • Building a questionnaire covering a large space of relevant quality dimensions
  • Identification of quality-relevant perceptual dimensions and analysis of their impact on the overall quality
  • Analyzing the performance of current objective metrics which were proposed for different contents and services in mobile gaming
  • Building a QoE model based on game, system and network characteristics as well as user and context factors
Time Frame: 
01/2016 - 06/2019
T-labs Team Members:
Steven Schmidt
Funding by:
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
Project Number:
MO 1038/21-1

List of Publications

Regal, Georg and Voigt-Antons, Jan-Niklas and Schmidt, Steven and Schrammel, Johann and Kojić, Tanja and Tscheligi, Manfred and Möller, Sebastian (2019). Questionnaires embedded in virtual environments: reliability and positioning of rating scales in virtual environments. Quality and User Experience. Springer, 1–13.


Utke, Markus and Zadtootaghaj, Saman and Schmidt, Steven and Bosse, Sebastian and Möller, Sebastian (2020). NDNetGaming-development of a no-reference deep CNN for gaming video quality prediction. Multimedia Tools and Applications. Springer, 1–23.


Barman, Nabajeet and Zadtootaghaj, Saman and Schmidt, Steven and Martini, Maria G. and Möller, Sebastian (2018). An objective and subjective quality assessment study of passive gaming video streaming. International Journal of Network Management. Hoboken, New Jersey, e2054.


Perkis, Andrew and Timmerer, Christian and Baraković, Sabina and Husić, Jasmina Baraković and Bech, Søren and Bosse, Sebastian and Botev, Jean and Brunnström, Kjell and Cruz, Luis and De Moor, Katrien and Saibanti, Andrea de Polo and Durnez, Wouter and Egger-Lampl, Sebastian and Engelke, Ulrich and Falk, Tiago H. and Hameed, Asim and Hines, Andrew and Kojic, Tanja and Kukolj, Dragan and Liotou, Eirini and Milovanovic, Dragorad and Möller, Sebastian and Murray, Niall and Naderi, Babak and Pereira, Manuela and Perry, Stuart and Pinheiro, Antonio and Pinilla, Andres and Raake, Alexander and Agrawal, Sarvesh Rajesh and Reiter, Ulrich and Rodrigues, Rafael and Schatz, Raimund and Schelkens, Peter and Schmidt, Steven and Sabet, Saeed Shafiee and Singla, Ashutosh and Skorin-Kapov, Lea and Suznjevic, Mirko and Uhrig, Stefan and Vlahović, Sara and Voigt-Antons, Jan-Niklas and Zadtootaghaj, Saman (2020). QUALINET White Paper on Definitions of Immersive Media Experience (IMEx). arXiv preprint arXiv:2007.07032. European Network on Quality of Experience in Multimedia Systems and Services, 14th QUALINET meeting, 1–15.


Sabet, Saeed Shafiee and Griwodz, Carsten and Schmidt, Steven and Zadtootaghaj, Saman and Möller, Sebastian (2018). Towards Applying Game Adaptation to Decrease the Impact of Delay on Quality of Experience. IEEE ISM 2018 – The 20th IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia. IEEE, 1–6.


Schmidt, Steven and Ehrenbrink, Patrick and Weiss, Benjamin and Voigt-Antons, Jan-Niklas and Kojic, Tanja and Johnston, Andrew and Möller, Sebastian (2018). Impact of Virtual Environments on Motivation and Engagement During Exergames. 2018 Tenth International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX). IEEE, 1–6.


Schmidt, Steven and Zadtootaghaj, Saman and Möller, Sebastian (2018). A Comparison of Interactive and Passive Quality Assessment for Gaming Research. 2018 Tenth International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX). IEEE, 1–6.


Schmidt, Steven and Zadtootaghaj, Saman and Möller, Sebastian and Metzger, Florian and Hirth, Matthias and Suznjevic, Mirko (2018). Subjective Evaluation Methods for Gaming Quality (P.GAME). , 1–24.


Schmidt, Steven and Zadtootaghaj, Saman and Möller, Sebastian and Metzger, Florian and Hirth, Matthias and Suznjevic, Mirko and Barman, Nabajeet and Martini, Maria G. (2018). Requirement Specification and Possible Structure for an Opinion Model Predicting Gaming QoE (G.OMG). , 1–20.


Schmidt, Steven and Zadtootaghaj, Saman and Schiffner, Falk and Möller, Sebastian and Shafiee Sabet, Saeed and Griwodz, Carsten and Barman, Nabajeet and Martini, Maria G. (2018). Data Assessment for an Opinion Model Predicting Gaming QoE (G.OMG). , 1–16.


Zadtootaghaj, Saman and Barman, Nabajeet and Martini, Maria G. and Schmidt, Steven and Möller, Sebastian (2018). NR-GVQM: A No Reference Gaming Video Quality Metric. IEEE ISM 2018 – The 20th IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia. IEEE, 1–6.


Zadtootaghaj, Saman and Schmidt, Steven and Barman, Nabajeet and Möller, Sebastian and Martini, Maria G. (2018). A Classification of Video Games based on Game Characteristics linked to Video Coding Complexity. 16th Annual Workshop on Network and Systems Support for Games (NetGames). IEEE, 1–6.


Zadtootaghaj, Saman and Schmidt, Steven and Möller, Sebastian (2018). Modeling Gaming QoE: Towards the Impact of Frame Rate and Bit Rate on Cloud Gaming. 2018 Tenth International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX). IEEE, 1–6.


Zadtootaghaj, Saman and Schmidt, Steven and Utke, Markus and Möller, Sebastian and Barman, Nabajeet and Martini, Maria G. and Shafiee Sabet, Saeed and Griwodz, Carsten (2018). Evaluation of Standardized Video Quality Models for Assessing Video Quality of Cloud Gaming Services. , 1–14.


Kojic, Tanja and Schmidt, Steven and Möller, Sebastian and Voigt-Antons, Jan-Niklas (2019). Influence of Network Delay in Virtual Reality Multiplayer Exergames: Who is actually delayed?. 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX). IEEE, 1–3.


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