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Tanja Kojić



Tanja Kojić received her M.Sc. degree in Information and Communication Technology at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb. Additionally, she has done supplement studies for Graphic Product Design at the Faculty of Graphic Arts, University of Zagreb and focused on topic of User Experience design. Since November 2017 she is employed as a research assistant at the Quality and Usability Lab where she is working towards a PhD in the field of Virtual Reality. 



Quality and Usability Lab

Technische Universität Berlin 

Ernst-Reuter-Platz 7

D-10587 Berlin, Germany


Development and Validation of Pictographic Scales for Rapid Assessment of Affective States in Virtual Reality
Citation key krüger2020a
Author Krüger, Christian and Kojic, Tanja and Meier, Luis and Möller, Sebastian and Voigt-Antons, Jan-Niklas
Title of Book 2020 Twelfth International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX)
Pages 1–6
Year 2020
Location Athlone, Ireland
Address Piscataway, NJ, USA
Month may
Note Online
Publisher IEEE
Series QoMEX
How Published Fullpaper
Abstract This paper describes the development and validation of a continuous pictographic scale for self-reported assessment of affective states in virtual environments. The developed tool, called Morph A Mood (MAM), consists of a 3D character whose facial expression can be adjusted with simple controller gestures according to the perceived affective state to capture valence and arousal scores. It was tested against the questionnaires Pick-A-Mood (PAM) and Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in an experiment in which the participants (N = 32) watched several one-minute excerpts from music videos of the DEAP database within a virtual environment and assessed their mood after each clip. The experiment showed a high correlation with regard to valence, but only a moderate one with regard to arousal. No statistically significant differences were found between the SAM ratings of this experiment and MAM, but between the valence values of MAM and the DEAP database and between the arousal values of MAM and PAM. In terms of user experience, MAM and PAM hardly differ. Furthermore, the experiment showed that assessments inside virtual environments are significantly faster than with paper-pencil methods, where media devices such as headphones and display goggles must be put on and taken off.
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